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Le Bio-méthane

Le Bio-hydrogène

La méthanisation

La méthanisation en STEP

L'épuration des Biogaz

Le captage du CO2

Les siloxanes

 

Le procédé VABHYOGAZ

Le biométhane - Enjeux et
solutions techniques
(Par ENEA)

Valorisation chimique du
CO2
- Etat des lieux 2014
- Bénéfices énergétiques
et environnementaux
- Evaluation économique
de 3 voies chimiques
(Par ADEME)

Etude du traitement des
siloxanes par adsorption
sur matériaux poreux:
application au traitement
des biogaz (Par HAL)

Outil d'aide à l'injection du
biométhane dans les
réseaux de gaz naturel

Panorama de la filière
biogaz, biométhane et de
ses acteurs (Par ATEE)

Etude de marché de la
méthanisation et des
valorisations des biogaz
(ADEME/GRDF 2010)

 

 

Plaquette PTC

Publicité PTC

Annuaire Invention Europe

Catalys

Greenpack

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


P.T.C. System
and natural hydraulic fracturing


Hydraulic fracturing ?

Initially, hydraulic fracturing is the technique that releases trapped gas in Underground rocks to extract gas or oil.

We also talk about hydrofracturing, hydrosiliceous fracturing, frac jobs, frac'ing or fracking. These terms relate to hydraulic fracturing.

Although it has been known by professionals in the petroleum sector for more than 60 years, this technique is the subject of recent media coverage.
It is controversial because of the environmental impacts associated with it in the United States. Hydraulic fracturing is used every year in tens of thousands of hydrocarbon drilling in the world.

Natural terrestrial hydraulic fracturing

Hydrofraction should not be confused with natural hydraulic fracturing (cryoclasty) which results, on the surface, from the effect of the freeze-thaw cycle of water trapped in a rock and the erosion of land by water to provide silt, sediment, alluvium and mud in which, the organic matter accumulates in large quantities and gives a sapropel (black mud) or lignite (debris of ligneous material).

One finds these accumulations of vase in particular in:

  • The estuaries of rivers.
  • The ports.
  • Ponds, marshes and mudflats (Between 5 and 10% of the world's coastline consists of mudflats).
  • Rivers and their dead arms.
  • Some hydraulic dams.
  • Rivers and streams.
  • Canals.
  • Lakes and lakes.

In the vases of the ponds there is a high proportion of carbonaceous organic matter (Up to 78% lignin in the form of complex humus). Ponds are organic carbon traps.

The sources of this siltation are numerous:

  • Decomposition of plants (aquatic plants, but also surrounding plants-leaves of trees, etc.),
  • Intrinsic organic effluents (mainly fish and bird droppings),
  • Turbidity of the water due to natural run-off, mineral particle intake linked to erosion,
  • Organic pollution upstream (livestock, wastewater, etc.)

 

It is aggravated by a biological imbalance caused, for example, by overfishing of fish, chemical eutrophication and the absence of wetlands around the perimeter.

 

The organic matter content

The proportion of organic matter in the dry matter of sediments varies between 90% in the case of peat and 2% in the case of river sands.
The composition of this organic matter is generally identical from one type of sediment to another. In general, the proportion of organic matter is of the order of 2 to 10% for the sediments of the courses of "white water" and consists of 60% of humic compounds (which is related to humus, ie all stable organic matter in the surface layer of a soil).

These "muddy" materials which are more or less rich in organic matter can therefore be subjected Methanisation in the same way as sludge from sewage treatment plants.

P.T.C. System is involved in the purification of the biogas obtained to provide the Bio-methane.

The P.T.C. System and its GASWASH process are perfectly adapted technically and economically for the purification of the biogas obtained by the natural terrestrial hydraulic fracturing.

Natural marine hydraulic fracturing

Natural hydraulic fracturing on shorelines is also the action of waves and tides that periodically deposit seaweed on beaches.

Brittany, how to get rid of green algae (Ulves)

Under the effect of a tendency to global warming, under the effect of aqueous discharges of livestock waste and water runoff along the coastline there are significant deposits of algae.

Each year, about 70,000 cubic meters of green algae washed up on the beaches of about fifty municipalities. T here are two species are difficult to distinguish armoricana Ulva and Ulva rotundata.

Funded by local authorities, the collection of ulves costs about 500 k € per year, or 1.5 billion euros in 30 years.

 

The ecological association Eau et Rivières de Bretagne estimates the price at 1 billion euros in thirty years. One thing is certain, some researchers are working on the use of these algae to make it compost.

There are many prevention plans to combat chemical eutrophication due to intensive farming and N fertilizer application in crops. However, the plans for direct treatment of algae are very limited: direct application and composting. (plan_algues_vertes.pdf).

It should be noted that direct spreading is a transfer of nitrogen pollution because the nitrogen of the algae returns to the ground.

West Indies, how to get rid of seaweed Sargassum (brown algae)

In Martinique, Guadeloupe, French Guiana and Saint-Martin, the sargasses aground in rafts of several hundreds of square meters of surface and several meters of thickness.
These brown algae colonize since 2011 the Caribbean Sea, but the phenomenon continues to grow.
These algae also cause enormous damage to the fauna and flora when they stagnate in the bays by preventing the sun from entering the water and killing the fish.
The nesting of the turtles is disturbed, the banks of seaweeds preventing them from coming to lay in the sand.
A project of the County Council of Guadeloupe envisages the use of a "bottom dredging boat" to "suck on the high seas" Sargassum, "before they arrive on the coast".
Once harvested, they would be crushed and discarded on the high seas "by 400 m depth".

 

According to Franck Robine, the prefect of Martinique, a hundred people and 35 machines are mobilized for the daily collection. "It cost 1.6 million euros in March and April 2018," he says. Martinique municipalities affected have already estimated more than 1.5 million euros damage and miscellaneous costs. For local tourism, it is a huge shortfall at the time of the summer season.

While it is essential to collect these Sargassum algae, a biogas upgrading treatment is possible with the purificatuion of the latter in biomethane thanks to the PTC system and its GASWASH process which are perfectly adapted technically and economically.

The methanisation of Ulvae

Green algae are rich in organic nitrogen being, which is found in part, mineralized in its ammoniacal form impacting any spreading plan put in place for farming.

The methanization of green algae to produce biogas, bio-methane and possibly electricity is theoretically possible but never applied to our knowledge.


 

To date, the methanization of algae faces a major problem with current techniques: The high content of green algae in sulfur (up to 5% of the dry weight of the alga, ten times more than ordinary green waste).

This problem of sulfur is solved with the P.T.C. Which makes it possible to eliminate considerable levels of sulfur derivatives at a very competitive cost. The P.T.C. Is positioned directly at the methanizer outlet and thus directly supplies the biomethane.

 

(http://www.innovalor.com/page2.htm)

A methanisation carried out by mixing seaweed and livestock manure is deemed to function almost correctly ... in Germany.

The P.T.C. System and its GASWASH process are perfectly adapted technically and economically for the purification of the biogas obtained by the natural terrestrial hydraulic fracturing.

In conclusion, the natural hydraulic fracturing sector represents an unprecedented opportunity for the production of Biogas which will be purified in Bio-methane with the P.T.C. System.

Biogas purification technology with P.T.C.

The biogas obtained from natural fracturing (Fracking) will have to be purified for optimal use.

In order to transform biogas into a substitute for natural gas, it is necessary to get rid of all the pollutants.
The P.T.C. Brings the technical solution that today allows biogas producers to efficiently use biomethane with its purification process.
The technology used makes it possible to permanently eliminate carbon dioxide (recyclable CO2), and to eliminate in the same operation the sulfur compounds, H2O, NH3, and others ....

 


Example of implementation of the P.T.C. System
on a methanation unit

The hydrogen sector, starting from methanisation, should logically find a preponderant place in the near future..


This application of the P.T.C. System is patented

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Quelquefois, les plus petits ressorts font mouvoir les plus grandes machines.
(Jean-Paul Marat)

 

 

 

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