and natural hydraulic fracturing
Hydraulic fracturing ?
hydraulic fracturing is the technique that releases trapped
gas in Underground rocks to extract gas or oil.
also talk about hydrofracturing, hydrosiliceous fracturing,
frac jobs, frac'ing or fracking. These terms relate to hydraulic
Although it has been known by professionals in the petroleum
sector for more than 60 years, this technique is the subject
of recent media coverage.
It is controversial because of the environmental impacts associated
with it in the United States. Hydraulic fracturing is used
every year in tens of thousands of hydrocarbon drilling in
Natural terrestrial hydraulic fracturing
should not be confused with natural
hydraulic fracturing (cryoclasty) which results,
on the surface, from the effect of the freeze-thaw cycle of
water trapped in a rock and the erosion of land by water to
provide silt, sediment, alluvium and mud in which, the organic
matter accumulates in large quantities and gives a sapropel
(black mud) or lignite (debris of ligneous material).
One finds these accumulations of vase in particular in:
The estuaries of rivers.
marshes and mudflats (Between 5 and 10% of the world's coastline
consists of mudflats).
and their dead arms.
Lakes and lakes.
the vases of the ponds there is a high proportion of carbonaceous
organic matter (Up to 78% lignin in the form of complex humus).
Ponds are organic carbon traps.
The sources of this siltation are numerous:
of plants (aquatic plants, but also surrounding plants-leaves
of trees, etc.),
organic effluents (mainly fish and bird droppings),
of the water due to natural run-off, mineral particle
intake linked to erosion,
pollution upstream (livestock, wastewater, etc.)
is aggravated by a biological imbalance caused, for
example, by overfishing of fish, chemical eutrophication
and the absence of wetlands around the perimeter.
organic matter content
The proportion of organic matter in the dry matter of sediments
varies between 90% in the case of peat and 2% in the case
of river sands.
The composition of this organic matter is generally identical
from one type of sediment to another. In general, the proportion
of organic matter is of the order of 2 to 10% for the sediments
of the courses of "white water" and consists of 60% of humic
compounds (which is related to humus, ie all stable organic
matter in the surface layer of a soil).
"muddy" materials which are more or less rich in organic matter
can therefore be subjected Methanisation in the same way as
sludge from sewage treatment plants.
P.T.C. System is involved in the purification of the biogas
obtained to provide the Bio-methane.
and its GASWASH process are perfectly adapted technically
and economically for the purification of the biogas obtained
by the natural terrestrial hydraulic fracturing.
Natural marine hydraulic fracturing
hydraulic fracturing on coastlines is also the action of waves
and tides that periodically deposit seaweed on beaches.
a result of a trend towards global warming, due to aqueous
discharges of livestock waste and water run-off along
the coastline, considerable seaweed deposits are observed.
Each year, about 70,000 cubic meters of green algae
run aground on the beaches of some fifty communes. There
are two species, hard to distinguish Ulva armoricana
and Ulva rotundata.
by local authorities, the collection of ulves costs
about 500 k € a year, or 1.5 billion euros in 30 years.
ecological association Eau et Rivières de Bretagne estimates
the price at € 1 billion in thirty years. One thing is certain,
some researchers are working on the use of these algae to
make it Of the compost.
are many prevention plans to combat chemical eutrophication
due to intensive farming and nitrogen fertilizer inputs into
crops. However, plans for direct treatment of algae are very
limited: Direct application and composting.
should be noted that direct spraying is a transfer of nitrogen
pollution because the nitrogen of the algae returns to the
The methanisation of Ulvae
algae are rich in organic nitrogen being, which is found in
part, mineralized in its ammoniacal form impacting any spreading
plan put in place for farming.
methanization of green algae to produce biogas, bio-methane
and possibly electricity is theoretically possible but never
applied to our knowledge.
date, the methanization of algae faces a major problem
with current techniques: The high content of green
algae in sulfur (up to 5% of the dry weight of the
alga, ten times more than ordinary green waste).
problem of sulfur is solved with the P.T.C. Which
makes it possible to eliminate considerable levels
of sulfur derivatives at a very competitive cost.
The P.T.C. Is positioned directly at the methanizer
outlet and thus directly supplies the biomethane.
A methanisation carried out by mixing seaweed and livestock
manure is deemed to function almost correctly ... in Germany.
And its GASWASH process are perfectly adapted technically
and economically for the purification of biogas obtained by
natural marine hydraulic fracturing.
conclusion, the natural hydraulic fracturing sector represents
an unprecedented opportunity for the production of Biogas
which will be purified in Bio-methane with the P.T.C. System.
purification technology with P.T.C.
biogas obtained from natural fracturing (Fracking) will
have to be purified for optimal use.
In order to transform biogas into a substitute for natural
gas, it is necessary to get rid of all the pollutants.
The P.T.C. Brings the technical solution that today
allows biogas producers to efficiently use biomethane
with its purification process.
The technology used makes it possible to permanently
eliminate carbon dioxide (recyclable CO2), and to eliminate
in the same operation the sulfur compounds, H2O, NH3,
and others ....
Example of implementation of the P.T.C. System
on a methanation unit
hydrogen sector, starting from methanisation, should logically
find a preponderant place in the near future..
This application of the P.T.C. System is patented