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Le Bio-méthane

Le Bio-hydrogène

La méthanisation

La méthanisation en STEP

L'épuration des Biogaz

Le captage du CO2

Les siloxanes

 

Le procédé VABHYOGAZ

Le biométhane - Enjeux et solutions techniques (Par ENEA)

Valorisation chimique du CO2 - Etat des lieux 2014 - Bénéfices énergétiques et environnementaux - Evaluation économique de 3 voies chimiques (Par ADEME)

Etude du traitement des siloxanes par adsorption sur matériaux poreux: application au traitement des biogaz (Par HAL)

Outil d'aide à l'injection du biométhane dans les réseaux de gaz naturel

Panorama de la filière biogaz, biométhane et de ses acteurs (Par ATEE)

Etude de marché de la méthanisation et des valorisations des biogaz (ADEME/GRDF 2010)

 

 

Plaquette PTC

Publicité PTC

Annuaire Invention Europe

Catalys

Greenpack

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Biomethane
The resource from biogas

Reducing greenhouse gases, improving waste management, preserving the quality of soil and groundwater and creating jobs, biomethane contributes to the development of a circular economy where waste becomes a renewable resource.

 

Produced from waste from the food industry, catering, agricultural and household waste, biomethane is a clean biogas that fully respects the properties of natural gas.

The digestion of these organic materials produces biogas that can be recovered by combustion in the form of heat and / or electricity. This biogas can be purified to achieve the quality of natural gas. It is then called "biomethane". Once purified and odorized, it can be injected into gas networks. His jobs are multiple: heating, electricity, fuel ... The production of biogas generates a residue called digestate.
Natural organic fertilizer, it is spread on agricultural land and thus replaces mineral fertilizers of fossil origin.
fossile.

Biomethane obtained from biogas can be used in four sectors:

  • Thermal recovery
    La The combustion heat of the biomethane can be used for the production of hot water, steam at medium or high pressure, or in process furnaces.
    The pressure required for the supply of gas appliances is generally low: 20 to 100 mbar. In general, thermal valuations require local outlets: they may be consumers outside the production site (industries, heat network, etc.) or internal uses.
    On the treatment plants, a portion of the biogas produced is generally used to maintain the digester at the fermentation temperature (37 or 55 ° C). This internal process consumption represents about 15 to 30% of the production..


  • Electric recovery (with or without cogeneration)
    Nearly 7 Nm3/year of biomethane produced by a population equivalent. After cogeneration biomethane production is obtained approximately 12.6 kWh/year/EH heat and 15,4 kWh/year/EH electricity.


    installation de cogénération


  • Biomethane injection into the natural gas network
    Annuall production of biogas fed into the grid is estimated e to about 3.5 Nm3/year for 1 EH (it is estimated that biomethane production correspond to 50% of the volume of biogaz producted and 75% of PCS biogas producted). The production of biomethane is equivalent to approx 35 kWh/year /EH PCS.

  • Biofuel 
    Quite widespread in Sweden, the valorization of biomethane in the form of automotive fuel is the subject in France of a few pilot plants currently being optimized: Lille, Sonzay (near Tours), Chambéry. For the moment, it is intended for the feeding of captive fleets of local authority vehicles: garbage collection, public transport; its interest is both economic and environmental, given the quality of gas engine emissions.

Biomethane: ecological and economic opportunities

Among the renewable energies, anaerobic digestion undoubtedly meets the requirements of a sustainable development: it valorizes the waste by the production of energy and non-polluting nutrients, contributes to the development of the agricultural territories, participates in the fight against greenhouse gases, created a chain of innovative companies.


Biomethane: balancing our gas supply

Ademe estimates that by 2030, 20% of the total supply of gas will come from anaerobic digestion. Biomethane, resulting from the purification of biogas, can already be directly injected into the gas distribution networks. It thus strongly contributes to the reduction of the French energy dependence by limiting the import requirements of natural gas.


Biomethane: the valorization in green fuel


Biomethane is also a green fuel that is now fueling public transit and will fuel road transport tomorrow. An ambitious project to network French territory with biomethane stations is under development which will offer road hauliers a real alternative of supply.

This sector thus offers many opportunities for various sectors of activity provided the risks inherent in this new market are under control.


Le Biomethane: recovery in bio-hydrogen

Currently, with the scheduled end of the "Diesel" deemed polluting, a transitional phase is launched with the "electric" and "hybrid" vehicles for which quickly the batteries will pose an environmental problem (construction and recycling).
An emerging market is hydrogen for fuel cell.
The fuel cell (PAC) uses hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) to generate electricity and heat by emitting only water.
It is clear that for this application of hydrogen, it must be produced without fossil CO2 emissions and distributed at an attractive selling price.
This hydrogen can be produced from many sources of primary energy,

    • either by electrolysis
    • by reforming

In both cases, its cost depends greatly on the size of the production facility and the cost of the primary energy used. Renewable energies (produced without fossil CO2 emissions) the cheapest are currently biogas and electricity from hydropower.

2010 market study

Biomethane figures 2013: :

Nombre Number of projects in development:

· More than 360 projects at the end of 2013

Average time of completion of the projects:

· 3 to 5 years

Turnover 2012:

· 290 million euros

Number of jobs mobilized in 2013:

· More than 1,700 direct jobs identified in 2013, of which one third on biogas plants

Purchase tariff for electricity produced from biogas 2013:

· Between 11.19 and 19.97 cent. € /kWh depending on size, energy efficiency and materials treated for sites other than storage facilities of Non Hazardous Wastes (ISDND)

· Between 8,121 and 9,765 cent. € /kWh for ISDND's according to size

Cost of an anaerobic digestion plant:

· Very variable from one to the other; estimated between € 6,000 and € 10,000 per installed kW

Amount of grants from the Waste Fund and Heat Fund allocated for biogas production in 2013:

· Around 33.6 million euros

Total Terawatt/hours produced:

· Around 2.3 TWh/year of final energy produced

National biogas production:

· In 2012, France was the 4th largest biogas producer in Europe producing 450 ktep of primary energy.

Source : http://www.bioenergie-promotion.fr/

The biomethane adventure in 2030

Whether at European or national level, the ambition concerning anaerobic digestion is strong and the objectives are high. The Ademe, for its part, advance that 30 Th / h of biomethane could be injected into the network by 1,400 installations by 2030. This represents the energy needed to heat 2,500,000 homes and power 55,000 buses or trucks.

GRDF, for its part, evaluates the biomethane injected at 0.2 TWH / year today. at 2030, it would increase to 30 TWh / year, an increase of 15,000% !!!!
In 2030, 10% of the annual gas consumption in France comes from biomethane.

 

Production costs of biomethane

A biomethane cost price higher than the purchase price of natural gas

The cost of biogas and biomethane is difficult to evaluate because it depends on the resource used and the size of the facilities.
The cost of investments is much higher in France than in Germany.
In large plants, the cost of producing biogas from biogas would be between 6 cents/kWh (cents) from waste and 8.5 cents/kWh from crops.
In small plants, the cost price rises to 15 cents/kWh from manure and 21 cents/kWh from crops.
With a price of natural gas at about 2.5 cents/kWh at the wholesale stage and 4.5-5 cents/kWh at the private individual, it is essential to compensate for the cost difference between methane d fossil origin and biomethane to incorporate it into the network.
For the production of electricity, such a compensation mechanism already exists.
The fixed tariffs are however not sufficient for the projects to be profitable without subsidy.
A similar mechanism will also be needed for grid injection and for carburetion, with a gap to be bridged by the same order of magnitude as that between 1st generation biofuels and fossil fuels.

However, a fuel-based biomethane production project should, in principle, be more cost-effective than a project using energy crops.

The following table summarizes the most important parameters of the described technologies applied to a raw biogas of medium composition.
The value of some parameters represents an average from the bibliography or existing installations. Prices quoted are those of March 2014.
.

Settings
Water washing
Organic solvent washing
Amine washing
PSA technology
Membrane technology
Methane content [vol%]

95,0 - 99,0

95,0 - 99,0
> 99,0

95,0 - 99,0

95,0 - 99,0

Methane recovery rate [%]

98,0

96,0

99,96

98

80 - 99,5

Methane loss [%]

2,0

4,0

0,04

2,0

20 - 0,5

Output pressure [bar(g))]

4 - 8

4 - 8

°

4 - 7

4 - 7

Electricity requirements [kWh/m3 of biomethane]

0,46

0,49 - 0,67
0,27

0,46

0,25 - 0,43

Besoin en chauffage et température de consigne

-

70 - 80·C
120 - 160·C

-

-

Desulfurization required

Process dependent

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Consumables needs

Decongestion agent,
Drying agent

Organic solvent (hazardous)

Amine solution (dangerous, corrosive)

Charcoal
(hazardous, fire hazard)

Partial load rate [%]

50 - 100

50 - 100

50 - 100

85 -115

50 -105

Number of reference installations

important

Low

Way

Important

Low

 

Costs investment
[€/(m3/h) biomethane]
 

for 100 m3/h

10 100

9 500

9 500

10 400

7 300 - 7 600

for 250 m3/h

5 500

5 000

5 000

5 400

4 700 - 4 900

for 500 m3/h

3 500

3 500

3 500

3 700

3 500 - 3 700

 

Costs operating
[
cent.€/m3 biomethane]
 

for 100 m3/h

15,4

15,2

15,8

16,4

11,9 - 17,4

for 250 m3/h

11,4

11,2

13,2

11,1

8,5 - 12,8

for 500 m3/h

10,1

9,9

12,3

10,2

7,2 - 11,1

 

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